Arctic sea ice decline and incoming energy - open water and ice
One factor in the decline of Arctic sea-ice is the positive feedback effect of more open water, that takes up more of the solar energy. Open water absorbs heat from the sun more readily than sea ice, increasing the surface temperature of the ocean. This delays the start of ice formation in the autumn and winter, and contributes to loss of ice during summer.
Citation: AMAP, 2012. Arctic Climate Issues 2011: Changes in Arctic Snow, Water, Ice and Permafrost. SWIPA 2011 Overview Report. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), Oslo. xi + 97pp
Copyright: AMAP, 2012