Sea-ice thickness - schematic illustration
Sea ice is not a uniform layer. Its thickness varies considerably. How thick the ice is depends on a wide range of factors including wind, ocean currents and sea and air surface temperatures. Sea ice is covered by snow during the autumn, winter and spring. In summer, it has liquid water and melt ponds on its surface, which can ice over during the night.
Citation: AMAP, 2012. Arctic Climate Issues 2011: Changes in Arctic Snow, Water, Ice and Permafrost. SWIPA 2011 Overview Report. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), Oslo. xi + 97pp
Copyright: AMAP, 2012